Responding to challenges and existing knowledge gaps facing the cooperative movement, this mapping research seeks to provide exhaustive information on cooperatives around the world.
This is achieved through a process jointly conducted by the ICA and its four regional offices – Cooperatives of the Americas, Cooperatives Europe, ICA Africa, and ICA Asia-Pacific – using a common methodology, designed with the support of external experts from the European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises (Euricse).
Each office collected the input of ICA members present in the countries within its geographic area, by using a common questionnaire, and completing it with relevant national statistics, in order to obtain a picture of the national situation. As a result, the data above is collected following two strategies: 1) a survey targeting ICA cooperative members 2) collecting national statistics already available in the country. The numbers above provide aggregated data from ICA members on the number of cooperatives, as well as the number of cooperative employees and memberships in the country. More methodological information is available in the full report. In Morocco, the data is collected for the reference year 2017.
Mapping out cooperatives in each country provides a more precise picture of the cooperative context at national and regional levels, enhances the movement's visibility, networking, partnerships opportunities, as well as advocacy, and empowers cooperators by providing tools for positive change.
This webpage presents a snapshot of the research results for Morocco. For more information and the full research results, you can download the highlights and the report by clicking on the links above.
Historically it can be said that solidarity and "cooperative" practices have been known in Morocco for centuries through the first inhabitants of Morocco (Amazigh), the management of the commune was ensured by the "Jmaa" , chosen by consensus among the members of the community.Historically it can be said that solidarity and "cooperative" practices have been known in Morocco for centuries through the first inhabitants of Morocco (Amazigh), the management of the commune was ensured by the "Jmaa" , chosen by consensus among the members of the community.
The number of cooperatives almost doubled from 2015 to 2019, bringing the number of cooperatives to 27,262 and the number of cooperators to 563,776. An analysis of the sectoral distribution of cooperatives and their unions shows that the agricultural sector accounts for the majority of all cooperatives, with a number of 17,582.
Morocco counts one ICA member organization, Office du dévelopment de la cooperation (ODCO)
ODCO is a public establishment with legal personality and financial autonomy, created by Dahir enacting Law No. 1.73.654 of 23 April 1975 on the Office for the Development of Cooperation.
The legal framework analysis aims to provide general knowledge of the national cooperative legislation and of its main characteristics and contents, with particular regard to those aspects of regulation regarding the identity of cooperatives and its distinction from other types of business organisations, notably the for-profit shareholder corporation.
It aims to evaluate whether the national legislation in place supports or hampers the development of cooperatives, and is therefore “cooperative friendly” or not, and the degree to which it may be considered so, also in comparison to the legislation in force in other countries of the ICA region, or at the supranational level.
In addition, the research aims to provide recommendations for eventual renewal of the legal frameworks in place in order to understand what changes in the current legislation would be necessary to improve its degree of “cooperative friendliness”, which is to say, to make the legislation more favourable to cooperatives, also in consideration of their specific identity. This webpage presents a snapshot of the legal framework analysis results for Morocco.
In Morocco, cooperatives are regulated by law 112-12 on cooperatives of November 21, 2014. There are also other texts regulating housing cooperatives, mining cooperatives, the national federation of cooperatives and agrarian reform cooperatives.
The main regulations can be summarized as follows:
Law 112-12 on cooperatives - All cooperatives are subject to this law, with the exception of agrarian reform cooperatives
Royal Decree No. 552-67 of December 17, 1968 - Relative to land credit, constitution credit and concerns housing cooperatives
Law 74-15 promulgated on August 25, 2016 - It concerns the procedure for obtaining the authorization to mine mineral deposits
Dahir n ° 1-58-376 of November 15, 1958 regulating the right of association - This law concerns the constitution and the functioning of the national federation of cooperatives, For the missions they are mentioned at the level of the law 112-12
Dahir bearing law n ° 1-72-277 of December 29, 1972 - Relating to the allocation to farmers of agricultural land in the private domain of the State
For the Office for the Development of Cooperation (ODCO), a member of the International Cooperative Alliance, Law 112-12 is suitable for the Moroccan cooperative movement and has many characteristics, including:
Simplification of the creation procedure, Reduction of the number of members from 7 to 5, Abolition of the approval prior to the exercise, submission to public procurement, and possibility for cooperatives to become a company.
There remains a problem and an issue related to co-operative financing because banks treat cooperatives as any private enterprise in financing their projects, hence the importance of thinking about creating a cooperative bank.
In order for national cooperative legislation to be more appropriate for cooperative development, recommendations need to focus on the following:
Mandatory requirement for a feasibility study, Remuneration of board members, the supervisory committee must be mandatory, the establishment of a 2% reserve called the Education and Training Fund.
It is important that the cooperatives in Morocco are all subject to law 112-12 including the agrarian reform cooperatives. It is also necessary to train decision-makers and legislators to enable them to understand the specificity of cooperatives. Consequently, it is necessary to revise article 102 to reinforce the attributions of ODCO and its financial and human resources and to envisage an annual subsidy for the national federation of the cooperatives.
The legal frameworks analysis is a tool developed under the ICA-EU Partnership #coops4dev. It is an overview of the national legal frameworks at the time of writing. The views expressed within are not necessarily those of the ICA, nor does a reference to any specific content constitute an explicit endorsement or recommendation by the ICA.